Refuge requirements and planting restrictions for TwinLink® Plus and TwinLink cotton. Producers should consult local authorities prior to planting to confirm requirements for specific fields or locations.
Effective refuge is one of the three major components of the TwinLink® Plus and TwinLink insect resistance management (IRM) plan.
The importance of refuges in delaying resistance buildup cannot be overstated. Refuges are a portion of the farming landscape that do not contain specific Bt genes and generate an abundance of susceptible target pests. These susceptible insects will mate with rare resistant insects that survive on the Bt crop, producing offspring that are killed by the Bt crop. This provides a mechanism to delay the rate at which resistance to Bt cotton increases in target pest populations, therein promoting the long-term effectiveness of the technology.
There are two types of refuges for TwinLink Plus and TwinLink cotton: structured refuges and natural refuges:
- Structured refuges are mandated areas of non-Bt that must be planted by growers.
- Natural refuges consist of crop other than those intentionally planted to serve as refuges, as well as non-crop vegetation, suitable to host target pests of TwinLink and TwinLink Plus cotton.
Areas Where Natural Refuge Has Been Approved for TwinLink Plus and TwinLink Cotton
In natural refuge areas, it is not necessary to plant a structured refuge. Refer to the above map for approved natural refuge areas: AL, AR, FL, GA, KS, KY, LA, MD, MS, MO, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX (excluding Brewster, Crane, Crockett, Culberson, El Paso, Hudspeth, Jeff Davis, Loving, Pecos, Presidio, Reeves, Terrell, Val Verde, Ward and Winkler counties) and VA.
Areas Where Growers Must Plant Structured Refuge for TwinLink Plus and TwinLink Cotton
Outside of natural refuge area (see above map), a structured refuge of non-Bt cotton must be planted with it in the following states and counties: AZ, CA, and NM, as well as the west Texas counties of Brewster, Crane, Crockett, Culberson, El Paso, Hudspeth, Jeff Davis, Loving, Pecos, Presidio, Reeves, Terrell, Val Verde, Ward and Winkler. Specific counties within these areas may have exemptions in accordance with state programs to eradicate pink bollworm. Growers are advised to inquire with local authorities about whether such exemptions apply.
Areas Where TwinLink Plus and TwinLink Cotton Cannot Be Planted
Commercial planting of TwinLink Plus and TwinLink cotton is prohibited in Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Planting of TwinLink Plus and TwinLink cotton is prohibited in: AK, CO, CT, DE, ID, IL, IN, IA, ME, MA, MI, MN, MT, NE, NV, NH, NJ, NY, ND, OH, OR, PA, RI, SD, UT, VT, WA, WV, WI, WY, DC and south of Route 60 (near Tampa) in FL.